Jaipur i is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India. It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Jai Singh, the ruler of Amer after whom the city is named. As of 2011, the city has a population of 6.66 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City of India.
Located at a distance of 260 km from the Indian capital New Delhi, it forms a part of the Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Agra (240 km). Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur (348 km), Jaisalmer (571 km) and Udaipur (421 km).
The city of Jaipur was founded in 1727 by Jai Singh II, the Raja of Amer who ruled from 1688 to 1743. He planned to shift his capital from Amer, 11 km from Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water. Jai Singh consulted several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur. Under the architectural guidance of Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu shastra and Shilpa Shastra. The construction of the city began in 1727 and took four years to complete the major roads, offices and palaces. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates.